Video Oyunlarının İcadı Ve Tarihçesi
Sizler için video oyunlarının icadı ve tarihi hakkında bilgiler derledik. İşte ayrıntılar.
Video oyunları Amerika Birleşik Devletleri, Japonya ve Avrupa’da 70’lerin sonu ve 80’lerin başlarında oluşacak yeni eğlence sektörünün temellerini, 1971 ortalarında ticari bir eğlence olarak ortaya çıkmasıyla atmıştır. Kuzey Amerika video oyun çöküşü olarak da bilinen ve 1983 senesinde Kuzey Amerika’da ki oyun şirketlerinin birer birer iflas ettiği ve 2 sene sonra toparlandığı dönemden sonra video oyun endüstrisi 10 senelik bir dönemden çok süren büyüme dönemine girmiştir. Video oyun piyasası 11 milyon USD’lik bir büyüklüğe ulaştığında, eğlence sektöründeki en karlı endüstri olan sinema endüstrisine rakip olmaya başlamıştır.
Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr. ve Estle Ray Mann Cathode-Ray Tube Eğlence Cihazı (Amusement Device) adlı bir cihaz için patent başvurusu yapıldı, patent 25 Ocak 1947’de alındı ve 14 Aralık 1948’de yayımlandı. Sekiz tane lambadan (vacuum tube) oluşan oyun belirli bir hedefe füze atılmasını simüle eden ve füzenin hızı ve atış eğimini belirlemek için düğmeler ihtiva eden bir cihazdı. O dönemde bilgisayarın henüz elektronik olarak grafik çizme yetenekleri olmadığı için, küçük hedefler basit bir ekran üzerinde çizgi ile gösteriliyordu.
1949-1950 dönemlerinde, Charly Adams “Bouncing Ball” (Zıplayan Top) programını MIT’s Whirlwind computer isimli şirket için yazdı. Program etkileşimli (interaktif) olmamakla birlikte, yakınca ortaya çıkacak oyunların bir göstergesiydi.
Şubat 1951’de Christopher Strachey, İngiliz Ulusal Fizik Laboratuvar’ının programı olan Pilot ACE için dama oyunu (draughts) programı yazdı ve çalıştırmayı denedi, lakin program Pilot ACE’nin tüm hafıza kapasitesini aşacak kadar hafızaya gereksinim duyuyordu. Ekim ayında oyun Manchester‘da daha büyük bir hafızaya sahip bir makinede çalıştırılabildi.
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We have compiled information about the invention and history of video games for you. Here are the details.
Video games laid the foundations for the new entertainment industry that would emerge in the United States, Japan, and Europe in the late 70s and early 80s, with their emergence as commercial entertainment in mid-1971. After the game companies in North America went bankrupt one by one in 1983, also known as the North American video game crash, and recovered 2 years later, the video game industry entered a period of growth that lasted more than 10 years. When the video game market reached a size of 11 million USD, it began to rival the movie industry, which is the most profitable industry in the entertainment industry.
Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr. and Estle Ray Mann for a device called the Cathode-Ray Tube Amusement Device, filed for a patent, received on January 25, 1947, and published on December 14, 1948. Composed of eight vacuum tubes, the game was a device that simulated launching a missile at a specific target and contained buttons for determining the missile’s speed and firing gradient. At that time, small targets were displayed with lines on a simple screen, as the computer did not yet have the ability to draw graphs electronically.
Between 1949 and 1950, Charly Adams wrote the “Bouncing Ball” program for MIT’s Whirlwind computer. While the program was not interactive, it was an indication of upcoming games.
In February 1951, Christopher Strachey wrote and attempted to run a checkers program for Pilot ACE, the program of the British National Physics Laboratory, but the program required enough memory to exceed the full memory capacity of the Pilot ACE. In October the game was able to run on a machine with a larger memory in Manchester.
In 1952, A.S. Douglas wrote xox, a graphic version of the game tic-tac-toe (played as SOS in Turkey) to use in his thesis on human-computer interaction at Cambridge University. OXO was developed on a computer called EDSAC, which uses light bulbs for visual use. In the game, the player was playing against the computer.
In 1958, William Higinbotham developed a game using an oscilloscope and an analog computer. The game was given an apt name, Tennis for Two, and was used to entertain visitors at the Brookhaven National Laboratory in New York. The game Tennis for Two was like a simplified side view of a tennis court, unlike the later ones in which a gravity-controlled ball could be played over the net. The game was played with two box-shaped controllers (arms), with two buttons on the handles, one for the ball’s track (path) and one for hitting the ball. The Tennis for Two gaming device was on display for two seasons before it was dismantled in 1959.
period between 1950 and 1960
Most of the first computer games were created on university mainframe computers in the USA and by individuals as a hobby. Many have not been widely used and recognized due to their limited reach.
Between 1959 and 1961, a number of graphics-based programs were written on TX-0 machines at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT):
Mouse in the Maze: A game where players can place the maze walls and a piece of cheese (in some versions by means of a light pen), and after releasing the mouse, the mouse’s search for cheese can be watched.
HAX: It is a game in which various visual shapes and sounds can be made by means of two switches on the console.
Tic-Tac-Toe: It is a game in which the user can print (X) and (O) signs on the screen using a light pen.
In 1961, a group of students at MIT, including Steve Russell, were working on one of the new computers of that period, the DEC PDP-1, Spacewar! They programmed a game called The game is a game where two people can play against each other, in the middle of a black screen, where there are stars that should not be hit, and each player controls their own spaceship that can shoot. The game was initially distributed with new DEC computers and was shared on networks that we can call the primitive internet. Spacewar! It is also considered as the first widespread and effective game.
In 1966, Ralph Baer made a simple video game called Corndog, the first of its kind that could run on standard television. With Baer’s help, Bill Harrison also created the light gun and developed various video games with Bill Rusch in 1967. Ralph Baer continued his development projects and in 1968 a prototype was completed that could run a variety of games such as table tennis, target shooting.
In 1969, AT&T computer programmer Ken Thompson wrote a game called Space Travel that ran under the MULTICS operating system.
This game simulates the solar system and its movements and is about the landing of a spaceship on the surface. Later, upon AT&T’s withdrawal from the MULTICS project, Thompson converted the game into the FORTRAN programming language for the GECOS operating system running on General Electric’s GE 635 mainframe computer. The one hour cost of working on this system was around $75. So Thompson started looking for a smaller and less expensive computer. He found an underused PDP-7, and he and Dennis Ritchie wrote the game in the PDP-7 converter language. In the process of learning to develop software for the machine, the development process of the UNIX operating system began and Space Travel was registered as the first UNIX application.
^ US 2455992 see also http://www.jmargolin.com/patents/2455992.pdf Archived March 20, 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
^ 1949-50 Whirlwind “bouncing Ball” demo program by Charly Adama Archived June 8, 2009 at the Wayback Machine. – Computer Graphic Timeline 1945-2000
^ a b John Anderson. “WHO REALLY INVENTED THE VIDEO GAME?”. Atari Magazines. Archived from the original on 18 December 2015. Retrieved 27 November 2006.
^ “The First Video Game”. Brookhaven National Laboratory. Archived from the original on 2 April 2013. Retrieved 27 November 2006.
^ “Video Games – Did They Begin at Brookhaven?”. Office of Scientific & Technical Information. Archived from the original on 3 January 2016. Retrieved 27 November 2006.
^ “Archived copy”. Archived from the original on 3 December 2008. Accessed May 5, 2009.
^ “1960: DEC PDP-1 Precursor to the Minicomputer”. CED Magic. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Accessed December 4, 2008.
^ Ritchie, Dennis. “Yes, A video game contributed to Unix Development”. Archived from the original on 23 July 2010. Retrieved April 5, 2007.
You can also find the longer version on Wikipedia.
We have compiled information about the invention and history of video games for you. Do not forget to share your questions and thoughts on this subject with us in the comments.
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